Friday, March 18, 2016

Necessity: The Mother of Invention

One of the best illustrations of the expansion of the U.S. Navy between The Great War and the Second World War is to compare the uniform charts between the two.The illustration at the top of the page presents us with a snapshot of the officers from a coal and boiler navy. All of the basic warrant trades of an early navy are evident. The only symbol of technology are the Naval Aviator wings.

Compare this with the illustration below depicting the U.S. Navy of mid-WWII. The basic warrant trades are still evident, but now the submarine service is depicted as well as an expansion of naval aviation. Also of note are the many trades and specialties of the enlisted sailor. Some of the specialties that evolved during wartime are represented by simple letters in a diamond shape.

Necessity is the mother of invention. Dominance of the Pacific ocean could not have been contested without the advances in technology and organization represented by these badges.

As the adventure game expands, much of this newer technology, the airplane, the submarine, the motor torpedo boat, amphibious vehicles and landing craft, must all be accurately portrayed and incorporated. 

Thursday, March 17, 2016

Living the South Pacific

It has been a few years, a long hiatus for an adventure gamer, since I have been able to get back to what probably will be the last major gaming project of my life.

As a regular surfer of the web, I have found an inspiration to the realm of Samoahu. I bring your attention to PAPANUISAYS.BLOGSPOT.COM.

Papa Nui says; "This forum is an opportunity for me to shoot shit on my favourite topics, namely surfing, board design, WWII military stuff, beachcombing and grass shack living and lets not forget vintage clothing and lots of other off beat and interesting stuff. I would love to be able respond to your comments and views so please take the time to include your email address in any correspondence. Write me, ".

I call your attention to this wonderful site because he truly is "THE BEACHCOMBER", living the life I would if I could. But wait, there's more.

You can share the beachcomber life  with PapaNui's wonderful line of "Beach Battalion" attire, including authentic USMC frog-skin camouflage caps, and many other objects of style that will either enhance your wardrobe collection or give you inspiration to develop your own South Pacific persona.

Papa Nui, Hand Salute.......Two.

M t B

Sunday, January 13, 2013

The Miniatures Game of Adventure in Exotic South Seas Locales
Just Before WWII

Rugged Adventures © 2002, Kurt Hummitzsch & Robert Murch
Pacific Adventure modification of Rugged Adventures with permission of Robert Murch.

These rules are a modification of the RUGGED ADVENTURES core rules, with pulp era adventures in the South Pacific in mind. The inspiration for these rules is taken directly from the Savage Seas range of miniatures from Pulp Figures.  Those who are familiar with RUGGED ADVENTURES will find the rules virtually unchanged, with exception only to modify and enhance rules for the immediate pre-WWII era when tensions were building from China to Panama between the Pacific powers.

What is necessary to have a Pacific Adventure?
Most important, you will need a Game Master (GM). The GM will design the scenario
and assign the goals and restrictions of each player. The GM will also have the last word
on rule interpretation and may modify die rolls to suit a specific situation. Remember, the
most critical part of Pacific Adventures is the STORY. All other aspects take a back
seat. It is the job of the GM to govern the story as it unfolds.

Minimally, you will need individual miniatures representing each of the players in your
gaming group. Each player then needs a group of about ten followers. Military officers
are followed by soldiers and marines. Naval officers are followed by sailors. Diplomats and VIPs are followed by an entourage of toadies. Gang Leaders are followed by assorted thugs. Archaeologists are followed by simpering grad students and local laborers and native chiefs by tribal warriors.
We recommend that each player provide his character and their followers so that some emotional attachment is developed before the game begins. Numerous other miniature ‘extras’ (movie terms suit Pacific Adventures) can be used in the game but they must be managed, to some extent, by the GM.
You will need a playing surface. This tabletop area might be a large, highly detailed landscape with buildings, jungle, mountains and waterways or it might be an interior layout of a seedy bar, roughly drawn with crayon on blank newsprint. Your ‘set’ (another movie term) is up to you. Get as involved as much as your time and budget will allow.
Finally, you need several tape measures, a six-sided die (D6), and at least a dozen ten sided dice (D10). The game uses D10's to resolve combat and morale. Die rolls of 1 are good and die rolls of 0(10) mean bad news.
Remember, the rule mechanics are a guideline only!
Figure Scale
Scale is 1:1. Each miniature represents an individual player or non-player extra.

Figure Classes
There are three figure classes in Pacific Adventures-Condensed: PRPs, Combatants and Non-Combatants. The Complete Pacific Adventures rules will add a Special Figures class that will include monsters and the occasional killer robot.

The primary Class is the Player Represented Personality or PRP. A PRP represents you the player on the gaming table. Each player should only have one PRP in the game.
Play tests allowing more than one PRP per player caused confusion and most players usually only role-played one PRP in the game anyway. This is not to say that one PRP can’t command several units of Combatants.

Combatants are units of soldiers, native warriors, gang members or rioting civilians.
Units of combatants must be lead by a command figure such as a military officer or
NCO, tribal chief, head of the local gang or the hothead civilian who probably started the riot in the first place. These leader figures may or may not be PRP's. These are typical war game figures.

Non-Combatants comprise all those unarmed bystanders wishing no part in the danger
or action. Examples might be villagers, missionaries and government bureaucrats. Non-
Combatants are useful plot devises for a Pacific Adventure. The players may have to rescue them from an evil villain or help them to reach the ship ahead of an oncoming lava flow. They can also be sources of information, supplies or loot.
In the role-playing aspect of the game Non-Combatants will be played by the GM.

Designing the Scenario
This is the critical part of the GM’s job. When creating the setting in which the players will act the GM must present a rough plot around which the action will evolve. Keep it simple but clever. Start by describing the situation in a Log-Line:

Curse of the Jade Chrysanthemum: A motley assortment of archaeologists, marines  and treasure hunters vie with Sinister Mr. Moto and local islanders over the whereabouts of a legendary Jade Chrysanthemum. Is it hidden somewhere in the seedy port of Samoahu or lost deep within the steaming palm jungle?

Of course it must be fleshed out from here but don’t get over complicated. This is a frame work. It is up to the players to inject the details. Then, establish the setting, determine the characters and assign their respective motivations. The scenario might be a straight up battle or a role-play intensive mystery, or both. Remember that the hallmarks of pulp fiction are atmosphere, character and action.

Turn sequence
The first turn begins with the GM presenting the scenario. PRPs in initial contact with each other should get together for preliminary role play so they can commence the conspiracy and double-dealing. After that you should follow the turn sequence.

Movement Orders, Charge & Rally Declarations: Each player declares what type of movement their figure & unit/units will use. Any figures & units wishing to charge declare their charge and designate their target. Rally attempts are made.

Movement Phase: Charging unit's charge. Units that are targets of a charge check morale to see if they will stand or run away from the chargers. All other figures & units now move. Movement is simultaneous.

Shooting Phase: All figures & units armed with rifles, pistols, non-carriage mounted machine guns (Tommy guns, Maxims etc), muskets, bows, spears etc., may fire at enemy units. Charging units that are shot at test morale to see if they will complete the charge.

Melee Combat Phase: All PRPs, or units in base contact with enemy figures or
units may fight Melee combat.

Morale Phase: All units that were shot at or fought in Melee combat test morale.

PRP Communication / Role-Play Phase: Players may communicate with other PRPs by issuing ill-conceived orders, complaining about the stupid actions of others or hatching futile but glorious plans. This is the time for funny voices and bad acting. Players are encouraged to ham it up. Those in radio contact may communicate with each other as long as they add appropriate radio static to their dialogue.
The GM will oversee the time allowed for this phase depending upon the impetus of the ongoing game. Further role-play may continue into other phases of the turn sequence during any turn.
(Supplemental Chapters will include an Occult Powers phase & a Supporting

Fire/Artillery phase.)

Forming Commands
Combat units should contain 10 figures. They may or may not be led by a PRP. Noncombatant units may contain up to 20 figures. These could include such figures as natives, tourists, archaeologists, laborers or local civilians.

Each PRP needs to be created prior to the game. A PRP must be assigned the following traits: Luck, Character Traits and Field Craft.
Luck is mostly used to determine if a PRP can lower a wound table result. It is useful in other circumstances but these are governed by the GM. Luck is only available to PRP figures. When creating their PRP, the player rolls a D10 on the following chart to determine the PRP’s luck. The Luck number is usually permanent unless the PRP finds a monkey’s paw☺

Die Roll                                                          Luck
1                                   Why Me? / Luck 3
2,3,4                             That’s Tough Pal / Luck 4
4,5,6,7                          Average Joe / Luck 5
8,9                                Caught a Break / Luck 7
10                                 In Like Flynn / Luck 8

When a PRP must roll on the ‘Wound Table’ they may be able to reduce the affects of the wound by making a luck roll. The player rolls a D10. If the die roll is less than or equal to their ‘Luck’ number the ‘Wound Table’ result is reduced to the next lowest level. For example: if a killed result is rolled and the PRP makes his Luck roll the killed result becomes a wounded result.

Sometimes luck can be used in other circumstances determined by the GM. An example might be a PRP who wants to risk leaping over a treacherous crevasse. The GM can have the PRP roll their luck to see if they make it or not.

Character Traits
PRPs have special traits they may use during a game. Each player rolls a D6 and divides the result by 2. This is the number of character traits a PRP may have. A PRP that can only have 1 trait may choose either a negative or positive Character Trait. PRPs who may have two or three Character Traits must take at least one positive and one negative trait.
PRP's who have a third trait may finish off with either type. Character Traits are permanent once assigned.

Certain Character Traits apply specifically to PRP's from certain regions or of specific nationalities. The Character Trait description will indicate who may use those specific traits otherwise a PRP may choose any trait.
Some character traits and how they are used are listed below. We encourage you to create your own, provided they keep within the ‘Pulp’ spirit. The GM has final say.

Positive Character Traits
Ambidextrous: The PRP may fire two pistols in one turn or fight Melee combat with two weapons. Two dice will be allowed per each combat (as long as it’s with weapons that can be used one-handed). The ‘To Hit’ roll remains the same.

Sixth Sense: The PRP has an uncanny ability to sense trouble. When the PRP figure moves into detection range of an unseen enemy or hazard, such as a trap, the player rolls a D10. If the die roll is less than or equal to their field craft they will be told by the GM that, “you have a bad feeling about this”. They will not be told specific locations or details. Detection range is 12” regardless of terrain.

Marksman: This PRP has deadly aim with a specific weapon. The figure’s basic ‘To Hit’ number for shooting is 6. This skill usually applies to rifles or pistols but works for bows or throwing knives, axes, spears, etc. also.

Excellent Swordsman: (or any other H-to-H weapon) The PRP is particularly good at Melee combat when using their weapon of choice. This figure will add +2 to their base ‘To Hit’ number in Melee combat.

Eagle Eye: An eagle-eyed PRP will get an automatic field craft rating of 9.

Strong Like Ox: This PRP is particularly robust. It will require three regular wounds to kill the PRP. The PRP treats their first killed result as a wound. A second ‘Killed’ result will remove the PRP from the game.

Inspired Leadership: The PRP is truly admired by their followers for their charisma and bravery. Any unit directly under the command of the PRP gets a +2 modifier to their base morale point (The PRP must be with the unit when the morale check is made).

Tactician: The PRP must be a soldier/warrior to use this trait. At the beginning of the movement phase of any turn the PRP may attempt to use their superior military ability.
The player rolls a D10. If the die roll is 1 or 2 the PRP, and the unit they are currently with, may move after all other units have moved.

Huge Joss: Only available to Far Eastern PRPs. The PRP has more luck (joss) than others ordinarily do. This trait permits the PRP to re-role any failed luck rolls. The result of the second luck roll must be used.

Ancient Training: Only available to Far Eastern PRPs. Think ‘Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon’. The PRP has received training in ancient arts and may fly short distances or run
up walls. The PRP may use these special moves 4 times during a game in place of normal
Remember that negative Character Traits can often be more fun to play then positive Character Traits. Movement: the maximum distance a figure may fly is 12". They may fly from ground to a rooftop or visa-versa. A flying figure may only make Melee attacks and may be shot at while flying.

Martial Arts: Usually only available to Far Eastern (Judo, Jujitsu, etc.) and Pacific Islander (Lua) PRPs. This trait gives the PRP improved Melee combat base rating (see applicable chart). Players are expected to mimic the martial arts moves and sounds during the game. Plenty of Haka is expected.

Irresistibility: This trait draws unquestionable attraction from the opposite gender within a 6” diameter. Any member of the opposite gender (and perhaps some of the same) will do anything the PRP asks of them on a roll of 1 through 6 using a D10. If forced to retreat as a result of a morale check, a character of the opposite gender will move in the direction of a character with this trait, whether he or she wants them to or not, if they are within 6” of him or her..

Negative Character Traits

Blind Eye: The PRP is blind in one eye. You must specify right or left. A ‘blind eye’
PRP may only see straight ahead and up to 45 degrees to the side of their good eye. A ‘blind eye’ PRP can't spot or shoot at any figures currently on their blind side.

Extremely Arrogant: This trait only applies to western PRP's. The PRP feels that all natives or foreigners are inferior. If they try to rally a foreign ally or native unit, the unit receives a -2 morale modifier to their base morale point.

Near Sighted: A nearsighted PRP must wear their glasses or a monocle at all times. They may never have a field craft rating above 6.
Clumsy: The PRP is prone to bad cases of the shakes during tense situations. They must pass a luck test before shooting at a charging enemy single figure or unit, or before fighting in Melee combat. If the luck test fails they have dropped their weapon and may not shoot or fight back during that turn. The PRP may still be shot at and attacked in Melee combat. They may pick up their dropped weapon at the beginning of the next turn.

Extremely Brave and Dashing: Aside from being very popular with the ladies at social functions, this PRP will not retreat or run from Melee combats. If their unit routs the PRP will remain behind to continue the fight. They may be taken prisoner but will continue to taunt their captors until they are released or rendered unconscious.

Impetuous: The PRP prefers closing with cold steel to shooting from a distance. Any turn in which the PRP is within a charge move of an enemy unit they must check their field craft. If the check is passed the PRP will act as the player wishes. If the test is failed the PRP must charge. If the PRP is a commander they will take their unit with them in the charge. If they are commanded by another figure (the character is an NCO and has a superior officer for example) they will obey their commander. If they are not currently under the command of a superior officer (he may not be with the unit or is currently out of sight) then the PRP must check for the impetuous charge.

Abrasive Personality: The PRP has a natural gift for putting people off. Due to an argumentative, "I know I am right", attitude. Units under this PRP’s command suffer a -2 modifier to their base morale point. Who wants to die for a sour mug like this?

Field Craft

A Field Craft number is used to determine a PRP’s ability to spot hidden trouble. Rolling a D6 and adding any modifiers from the Field Craft chart determine the Field Craft number. The highest Field Craft number a PRP may have is 9.

When a PRP makes a Field Craft check a D10 is rolled. Units required to make a field craft check use their PRP's Field Craft number. If the roll is less than or equal to the PRP's Field Craft number the check succeeds and the hazard is revealed. The hazard might be an enemy unit, quicksand or a man-made trap.

Field Craft Chart                                                                    Modifier
PRP / Unit is in foreign territory                                                       +1
PRP / Unit is on home ground                                                          +2
PRP has military training or is professional outdoorsman                 +1
PRP has "sixth sense" character trait                                                 +1

Spotting Enemy Units
Some units may start a game on the table but hidden in ambush. These units are not placed on the table until they are spotted. The GM and the applicable player should log where hidden units are at the beginning of the game. Some units may be placed on the table but are moving through or behind terrain such that their enemy can't see them. These units are referred to as hidden and may not be shot at or reacted to until they have been spotted or have begun firing from their concealed position.

Any unit may attempt to spot a concealed but moving, stationary or firing enemy unit.
Musket and matchlock units that shoot are automatically spotted by all who can trace a line of sight to the firing unit. Units in the open and in direct line of sight are spotted.

To spot concealed units that are moving or stationary firing, the spotter must roll a D10 and if the result is less than or equal to the unit or PRP's field craft number, the target is spotted. If the result is more than their field craft number, the spotter fails their attempt and the target remains concealed.
To spot units that are stationary but not firing, the spotter must roll a D10 and the result must be less than ½ of their field craft number (fractions round up) to successfully spot the target.

If during the movement phase a unit would move through a hidden enemy position the moving unit must end its move 4" in front of the hidden enemy. The hidden enemy is automatically spotted and the all figures in that unit are placed on the table.

Units may shoot at firing enemy units they have not spotted but halve their ‘to hit’ number.

Sniper Rule. Snipers are masters of concealment and marksmanship. Modify the spot concealed unit role by -2 for a sniper and -1 for units wearing full camouflage.

Terrain Effects
Open/Crops. Open areas have light or no vegetation. Open areas do not affect movement or visibility.
Mature crops provide concealment but do not affect movement. Visibility is 4”.

Beaches. Foot units are reduced by ¼ when crossing sandy beaches.

Forest, Jungle. Foot units move at their normal rate through forest. Visibility in a forest is 16". Jungle cuts movement by 1/2 and visibility is 8”. Forest or jungle provides light cover.

Rivers, Streams, Swamp and Wading Ashore. Streams can usually be crossed at ½ of the figure’s movement rate. Rivers are normally too wide to cross but can be crossed at a ford if one exists. Units crossing at a ford move at ¼ their normal move rate. Units wading ashore move at ½ their normal movement rate. Swamps can vary and crossing them is the prerogative of the GM. Avoiding quicksand or black mambas might require a Luck Roll.

Roads and Trails. Roads and trails pass through and over any type of terrain and figures move as if it were open ground. Units on a road do not benefit from any cover.

Cover Provided by Built Up Areas. When in towns, villages and other settlements visibility is line of sight. Figures may see up to a building but not through it. Huts provide concealment but do not provide cover from shooting. Buildings made from mud or clay bricks provide light cover. Buildings built from logs, fieldstone or kiln fired bricks provide medium cover. Fortifications are deliberately stronger than civilian buildings and provide hard cover.

Hills, Mountains and Volcanoes. The GM will govern movement penalties depending on the grade of the hill. Line of sight can also be affected by the presence of a hill.

Full Camouflage. A PRP or unit wearing full camouflage may take concealment advantage only if engaging in Concealed Movement or are stationary.

There are five movement rates players must choose from and announce at the start of the turn: concealed, combat, patrol, march, run and charge.

Concealed movement is 2” or less and applies to all troops wearing full camouflage.

Combat movement is very slow and cautious. Figures are assumed to be taking advantage of any ground cover available. Using a combat move gains bonuses for shooting and being shot at.

Patrol movement is a faster version of a combat movement. The figures are alert and ready but are not using the local ground for cover against enemy fire.

March movement is used to rapidly advance. The marching figures must be in a column, which may be up to 4 figures wide. Units marching use half their field craft, fractions rounded up, when they make a spotting check. Units marching may not shoot.

Run movement is used to cross ground quickly. Running units may not shoot.

Combatant units may run for two consecutive turns and then must either remain stationary or use a combat move. Non-combatants may only run for one turn and then must either remain stationary or use a combat move.
Units may not use a Run move to engage enemy units in Melee combat.
Charge movement is used to place a unit into Melee combat. Charges are covered in the Melee combat section. Charging units may not fire their weapons.

Western Foot: Patrol 8" / March 12"/ Combat 4"/ Run 15"/ Charge 20"
Native Foot: Patrol 10" / March 12" / Combat 4" / Run 18" / Charge 22"

Western Foot includes Europeans, Americans, East Indian British military and any forces modeled on the western example such as Imperial Japanese. Use Western movement rates for all civilians but without the March move.

Native Foot represents local peoples including those local troops serving a western command (e.g. American trained Fita Fita). Native units classed as combatants or being used as hired porters may use the March move. All other native units may not march. 

There are there two modes of swimming: Surface and Sub-Surface. Swimmers can be assisted by primitive diving gear of re-breathers, masks and fins. Surface swimmers dressed and equipped for land movement swims at ½ of movement value. Sub-surface swimmers dressed and equipped for land movement are in the Hurt Locker. Any ambiguity will be decided by the GM.

Swimming Movement Chart         Movement           # of Turns Can Remain Submerged
Surface unassisted                                   6”                                              N/A
Surface assisted                                       8”                                              N/A
Sub-surface unassisted                            4”                                              One
Sub-surface assisted                                6”                                              Ten
Hard-hat divers                                       3”                                              Twenty
Vehicle Movement
For simplicity, vehicle movement is divided into On-road, Off-Road and In-Water and In-flight. In-Water applies to amphibious vehicles as well as watercraft and float planes. Watercraft within the scope of Pacific Adventures is assumed to be operating in coastal, in-shore or in-land waters at safe maneuvering speeds. Any vehicle may double its speed but runs the risk of going out of control and hitting a palm tree, rock, etc. Consult the luck table if a PRP is controlling the vehicle. If driven by a non-PRP, there is a 50% chance the vehicle will go out of control.

Vehicle Movement Chart            On-Road      Off-Road        In-Water    In-Flight
Automobile:                                          40”                 20”                 10”              N/A
Truck:                                                   30”                 15”                 5”                N/A
Tracked Vehicle:                                  25”                 10”                 5”                N/A
Surface Watercraft:                              N/A                N/A                12”              N/A
Sub-surface Watercraft:                       N/A                N/A                6”                N/A
Aircraft:                                                35”                 6”                   6”                60”
Ranged Combat
Ranged combat occurs when a unit fires at an opposing unit. The target must be within range. All shooting is assumed to be simultaneous.
Weapon Ranges
Small Arms Weapon Class              Short    Medium    Long
Slings, flintlock pistols                           6”           8”           N/A
Hand Grenades (2 Dice)                        6”           12”         N/A
Pistols, Carbines, Bows                         8"            15"          20”
Bolt Action/Self loading Rifle               10"          40"          60"
Rifle Grenades (3 Dice)                         N/A        20”         36”
Shotgun (2 Dice)                                    4”           10”         N/A
Jezzail / Musket / Matchlock                  8"            24"          40"
Thrown Spears                                       6"            N/A        N/A
Sub Machine Gun (3 dice)                     8"            15"          20"
Automatic Rifle (BAR) (3 Dice)           10"          30"          50"
Machine Gun (4 dice)                            10"          40"          60"
Mortars (5 Dice)                                     N/A        30”         60”
Light artillery – Direct fire (5 Dice)       20”         40”         80”
Note: Light artillery includes tank guns.

The firing unit must have line of sight to the target. Figures may shoot at a concealed, firing enemy they have not yet spotted, as long as they can see the enemy's location. D10s are used to resolve ranged combat. The weapon class determines the number of dice per figures shooting. Most weapons roll only one D10. (e.g. A unit of ten, rifle armed figures throw 10 D10 for hits.)
Each weapon has a Base Hit Number of 4 or less. A PRP with the marksman character trait has a base hit number of 6. The base hit number is modified according to the Shooting Modifiers Table.

Shooting Modifiers
Target is within short range +2
Shooter is a sniper +2
Shooter is stationary or used a combat move +2
Target is at long range -1
Target is charging shooter or routing +1
Target is using a combat move -2
Target has not been spotted 1/2 hit number
Target is in soft cover -1
Target is in medium cover -2
Target is in hard cover -3
Each D10 that rolls less than or equal to the modified hit number will score a hit. Players should roll dice to randomly determine which figures within the target unit are hit. Any figures that are hit must roll for results on the ‘Wound Table’.

Jezzail, Musket and Matchlock Firing Restrictions
Due to the process required to load a Jezzail, matchlock or flintlock musket, figures with these weapons shoot only if they used a combat move or remained stationary that turn. If their weapon was loaded in a previous turn but was not fired, the unit may move and fire their weapon during a later turn without the movement restriction.

Machine Guns (referring to Maxim or Lewis types)
Due to their high rate of fire machine guns roll 4 D10 for hits. Machine guns usually require a crew of at least 2 figures. One figure fires the gun while the other loads ammo. If a machine gun is being fired by a single figure it only rolls 2 D10. It takes one turn after moving with a maxim type machine gun to prepare the position and ammunition before it may be fired.
A Lewis type machine gun is fed ammunition by a round canister that is mounted on the top of the gun. A Lewis gun will always roll 4 D10. A Lewis gun must spend one turn reloading for every three turns of firing and may not fire during the reloading turn. The crew must remain stationary to change the ammunition canister. If loaded, a Lewis gun may be fired in a turn during which the gun crew moved, if they used a combat move.

Automatic Rifles (BAR) and Sub-Machine Guns
These weapons are machine guns that can be carried by a single figure. They roll 3 D10 per figure. For simplicity players do not have to worry about reloading these weapons therefore they may fire every turn and are treated as a regular small arms weapon for moving purposes.

Hand Grenades
These are hand-held explosive devices that propel metal fragments up and away from the blast. Only one grenade can be thrown per figure per turn and the figure may not move or use another weapon during the turn a hand grenade is used. The thrower determines where the grenade will land. The blast radius is three inches in open ground. The grenade explodes in the following turn. Roll 2 D10 per figure.

Mortars and Rifle Grenades
These are essentially propelled grenades. The operator of a rifle grenade launcher must remain stationary when firing a rifle grenade, may fire only once per turn and cannot use any other weapon during the turn the grenade is fired. The firer determines where the grenade or mortar round will hit. He writes this location and writes it down during the turn it is fired. The grenade or mortar round lands the following turn and explodes. Rifle grenade use 3 D10 and mortar use 5 D10.

Light Artillery
Light artillery is a small or medium caliber, (less than 75mm) canon mounted as either an infantry support weapon or mounted on an armored vehicle. It includes 20mm Oerlikon type cannon and anti-tank guns. Use 5 D10.

Melee Combat
Melee combat occurs when enemy figures are in base contact. Figures may contact enemy figures only by charging. Non-combatants and groups armed with improvised weapons (table legs, farm tools, broken bottles etc.) normally will not charge properly armed figures.

A charge is declared at the beginning of the turn. The charging PRP and or unit must announce their target and must charge only the target announced. A charging unit must be able to reach its target with its charge move. The target unit must check morale when the charge is announced. If the target unit fails their morale check they will break and must rout, moving directly away from the charging unit. A unit that breaks when being charged may be rallied normally. A unit that is the target of a charge and does not rout can shoot at the chargers but may not shoot at other figures. A charging unit that is shot at and hit, resolves the results of all hits taken and must check morale. If the morale check is failed the charging unit is suppressed and the charge is cancelled. If the charging unit passes their morale check they move into base contact with the target of the charge.

A charging player can cancel a charge at any time, unless the charging unit is being led by a ‘brave and dashing’ PRP. A unit that cancels a charge is suppressed for the remainder of the turn and they may not move or shoot until the next turn. The unit may declare another charge at the beginning of the next turn. When a charging unit moves into base contact with an enemy unit they will fight in the Melee combat phase. Units in Melee combat may not fire during the shooting phase. Other units who fire into a Melee combat will roll their hit dice normally. Any dice causing hits will be applied to the enemy unit. All dice that did not cause hits are re-rolled and any of those hits are applied to the friendly unit.

Charging immediately after Melee combat
Non-western units may charge another enemy unit in the turn immediately after fighting melee combat if their previous opponents have been routed or eliminated. This new charge replaces any pursuit move the unit may have been allowed to make. Western units must stand stationary for one turn, in order to reorganize themselves, before they can announce another charge.

A unit or figure can choose to surrender. If enemy figures surround a figure in melee combat and it is ‘forced back’ as a combat result, the two players involved roll a die. If the ‘forced back’ player rolls equal to or higher than his opponent, the figure remains in place and is suppressed. If the other player rolls higher the ‘forced back’ figure is captured. Captured figures are at the mercy of their captors.

Resolving Melee Combat
Melee combat is resolved in a manner similar to ranged combats. Each figure in base contact with an enemy rolls one D10. Figures have a base hit number shown in the ‘Melee Combat Chart’. This base number can be modified according to the ‘Melee Combat Modifiers’ chart.

Melee Combat Chart
Weapon                                                                              Base Hit Number
Figure trained in Martial Arts including Lua.                                   8

Traditionally armed Native, Soldier w/ bayonet
Trained Swordsman, Experienced brawler.                                      7

Figure armed with firearm without bayonet, Native with
firearm, Peasant with club, axe etc.                                                   6

Figures with improvised weapons, non-military personnel
and all others who have limited knowledge of fighting                   4

Melee Combat Modifiers
Opponent is behind a low wall or barricade -3
Opponent is defending a doorway -2
Opponent is on higher platform/up-stairs -1

A modified hit number can never be less than 1. For each D10 roll that is less than or equal to the final hit number one enemy figure receives a hit. Players should randomly determine which figures receive the hits. Figures that are hit must roll on the ‘Wound Table’ to determine results.

A PRP led unit will generally act in a manner responsive to the leadership displayed by the PRP. This may be good or bad for the player depending upon how the GM views his leadership. The boys may fight to the death for a particularly inspiring leader or they may surrender early just to be rid of the slob in command.

Combat Results for Shooting and Melee
Each figure that receives a hit during combat must roll a D10 and check the ‘Wound Table’ to determine the result. Figures hit more than once must take the worst result.

Wound Table
Die roll                                                            Results
1                                                                      No effect
2,3,4,5,6,7                                                       Figure suppressed / Forced Back
8,9                                                                   Figure wounded
10                                                                    Figure killed
Wound Table Modifiers
+1 if shot by musket, matchlock, jezzail or shotgun
+1 if fighting in Melee combat
-1 if hit figure used shield in Melee combat
+ 3 if in damage radius of a hand grenade
+4 if in damage radius of a rifle grenade or mortar
+5 if in damage radius of light artillery
-2 if submerged

Wound Table Results:
No effect. The figure may continue to act as the player wishes.

Figure Suppressed. The figure may not move, unless it is routing away from an enemy.
The figure may not fire any weapons or fight in Melee combat. A suppressed result remains in effect for one turn.

Forced Back. This only applies in Melee combat. The figure must retreat 10" away from the enemy and is suppressed. If surrounded the figure might surrender.

Figure wounded. The figure may not move independently, shoot or fight. The figure must be helped by another figure if they wish to move. Wounded figures may be taken prisoner or attacked by an enemy figure in base contact. A wounded figure that is wounded a second time is killed.

Figure is killed. The figure is dead. Consult the ‘Cliff-hanger’ rule if the figure is a PRP.

Vehicle Damage

If a vehicle is damaged it is unable to move unless it is repaired. The extent of damage and repair requirements are to be determined by the GM. If the occupants are wounded, they are unable to repair the vehicle. If a damaged vehicle carries a weapon, the weapon may still fire, unless determined otherwise by the GM. Wounded occupants may not fire the weapon.  If a vehicle is destroyed it can no longer move and its weapons are destroyed along with it. If the vehicle is an aircraft and the occupants are wounded the aircraft will crash. Crash locations are to be determined by the GM.

Vehicle Damage Chart

Die roll                                                            Soft Skin Vehicle             Armored Vehicle
1, 2, 3, 4, 5                                                      No effect                           No effect
6,7                                                                   Vehicle damaged,             No effect
                                                                        occupants unharmed
8,9                                                                   Vehicle destroyed,            Vehicle damaged,
                                                                        occupants wounded          occupants unharmed
10                                                                    Vehicle destroyed,            Vehicle destroyed,
                                                                        occupants killed                occupants wounded
Vehicle Damage Modifiers
-2 if hit bow arrow, spear, sling launched projectile, knife or bludgeon.
-1 if shot by musket, matchlock, jezzail shotgun pistol
+2 if hit by a machine gun
+ 3 if in damage radius of a hand grenade
+4 if in damage radius of a rifle grenade or mortar
+5 if in damage radius of light artillery
-1 if the vehicle is moving.
-2 if the vehicle is moving at double speed
-4 if the vehicle is an aircraft.
-2 if the vehicle is submerged
The morale point is a number that is used to check a figure or unit's state of mind. Figures must check morale when they are being charged, if they were shot at or after melee combat. The base morale points are listed below.

Morale Chart
Troop Type Base                                                       Morale Point*
Trained Soldiers, Fanatics                                                  10
Native Warriors, Untrained Militias                                    8
Villagers, Civilians                                                               6
*These are only guidelines and may be modified as the GM sees fit.

The base morale point of a figure or unit can be modified by circumstances. The morale modifiers are listed in the following chart.

Morale Modifiers
Condition                                                                   Modifier
Being charged                                                                    -1
No leader/ PRP present                                                      -1
Each figure killed / wounded this turn                               -1
Each figure suppressed this turn                                       
Led by inspiring leader                                                       +1
Elite troops (marine raiders, SNLF, etc.)                           +1
To check morale, apply any applicable modifiers to the tester’s base morale point. Roll a
D10. If the resulting number is less than or equal to the modified morale point the tester may carry on unaffected. If the die roll is greater than the modified morale point the tester fails the morale check and must suffer the appropriate consequences.

Failing morale from shooting
The first time a unit fails a morale check caused by shooting it becomes suppressed.
Suppressed figures may not move or shoot. Suppressed figures may not take advantage of ‘combat move’ modifiers if shot at. Suppression lasts one full turn as long as the unit does not have to take any further morale checks. The following turn they will automatically rally and may declare normal movement again. E.g. If a unit is suppressed by shooting in turn 4 it will be suppressed during turn 5 and may not move or shoot. If nothing else happens to them the unit may move and shoot normally again at the beginning of turn 6.

If a currently suppressed unit fails another morale check caused by shooting, the unit must retreat. The unit uses any movement rate except charge or march and must move away from the enemy that caused the morale check. Retreated units will become suppressed at the end of their retreat move. They may recover from being suppressed in the manner described above.

A unit that was forced to retreat last turn and fails another morale check caused by shooting will rout.

A routing unit will run away from all visible enemy units towards the closest friendly table edge. Routing units must use a ‘run move’ and will continue to rout every turn until they are rallied.

Failing Morale after Melee combat
After Melee combat both units must check morale. A unit that has taken more hits than their opponent is the losing unit. The side with fewer hits is the winning unit.
A losing unit that fails a morale check will rout. A winning unit that fails a morale check must pursue their routing enemies.
A winning unit that passes their morale check may or may not pursue a routing enemy, according to the player’s wishes.
If both units took the same number of casualties there is no winner and both units are treated as losing units when testing morale.

The pursuing unit moves at their ‘run move’ and any figures that can make base contact with an enemy figure may fight Melee combat next turn. The routing figures suffer the results of the Melee combat before any surviving figures may attack back. Pursuing figures may not shoot while they are pursuing.

Any PRP, or other leader figure that has joined, or is part of a routing or pursuing unit, may attempt to rally that unit during the movement declaration phase. The player rolls a D10 and factors in any ‘moral modifiers’ (see table). If the resulting number is less than or equal to the unit’s modified morale number the unit rallies. The unit must remain stationary during the turn in which they are rallied. They may not shoot while rallying. On the following turn the unit may move and shoot normally.

A pursuing unit that passes a morale check can rally from pursuit. The pursuing unit must remain stationary for one turn while rallying and then may move and shoot normally.
Units that roll higher than their modified morale point continue to rout or pursue. The player may attempt to rally the unit again on following turns. Once a unit has routed off the table it is assumed to be lost and may not return for the remainder of the game unless the GM requires the return of the missing figures to further the story.
The Cliff-Hanger Rule
If a PRP is killed during a game there is a chance that, through some incredible miracle, they may have cheated death in spite of what all the other players witnessed. At the end
of a game, a player who’s PRP's died may invoke the ‘Cliff-Hanger’ rule. The players must make up a story (the more convoluted the better) relating how their PRP managed to cheat death. If the GM decides the story has merit, regardless of how ridiculous it may be, the player is allowed to make one last Luck Roll. If the final Luck Roll is passed, the
PRP has indeed survived and is available for the next game. The GM may also grant unconditional survival to particularly good stories.
The Cliff-Hanger rule can also be applied to non-lethal situations, such as; “Oh, yes, well
I did indeed find the chest of gold after all. What happened was this……”. Consider it an opportunity to end the game without having to play until the bitter conclusion. Use this rule to tie all up all the loose ends. Don’t be afraid of ending up with conflicting stories.
Think of those TV shows where all the characters experience the same event but relate a different account of what happened. Remember, a good Story comes before everything else.